Georgetown KnLo Octafinals – Marine Speed

Plan

The United States federal government should substantially increase restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions from marine vessels by reducing the maximum allowable speed of marine vessels transiting United States territory.

 

Bering Strait 1AC

 

Readiness solves every global conflict

Dowd 15

Alan Dowd, senior fellow with the Sagamore Institute Center for America’s Purpose, Providence Magazine, December 31, 2015, “Shield & Sword: The Case for Military Deterrence”, https://providencemag.com/2015/12/shield-sword-the-case-for-military-deterrence/

Surely, the same principle applies in the realm of nations. Our world teems

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concludes, “than certainty about who holds the upper hand.”[xvii]

 

Point Mogu is unique—no other locations offer its training and operational functions

Young, 8

(Columnist-Associated Press, More ships in missile range?, 7/27, http://www.dailynews.com/article/ZZ/20080727/NEWS/807279949)

SACRAMENTO – The 36,000-square-mile Point Mugu Sea Range off

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as far as Utah. You just don’t have anything like that elsewhere.”

 

US Russia accidental launch risk high in the Arctic—goes nuclear and cause extinction. Most recent and qualified evidence

Barrett, 16

(Former Stanton Fellow at RAND and Senior Risk Analyst-ABS Consulting, False Alarms, True Dangers? Current and Future Risks of Inadvertent U.S.-Russian Nuclear War,

http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/perspectives/PE100/PE191/RAND_PE191.pdf)

In the post–Cold War era, it is tempting to see the threat

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Podvig, 2002, p. 49; Podvig, 2013).6 .

 

US leadership on vessel traffic regulation critical to further relations with Russia on other issues—leads to strengthened governance in Russia and locks-in economic benefits of Northeast Passage as a global transit route

Russell, 15

(MA-Political Science at University of Alaska Fairbanks, “BOUNTY IN THE BERING STRAIT: A CASE FOR PROACTIVE REGULATION IN THE WORLD’S NEXT CHOKEPOINT,” https://scholarworks.alaska.edu/handle/11122/6122)

Despite past tensions, looming apprehensions, and present disputes, the economic and strategic

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and promote peaceful relations in the coming ‘age of the Arctic.’

 

 

Speed restrictions essential to vessel safety as shipping expands in the Bering Strait—US leadership essential to mobilize international regulatory cooperation

Huntington, 15

(Fellow-Pew Charitable Trusts, Vessels, risks, and rules: Planning for safe shipping in Bering Strait, Marine Policy

Volume 51, January 2015, Pages 119–127)

The Bering Strait has been a nexus of trade for millennia [1]. People

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the cultures that depend on it, while both remain vibrant and healthy.

 

Speed limits minimize the risk of shipping accidents in the Bering Strait

Russell, 15

(MA-Political Science at University of Alaska Fairbanks, “BOUNTY IN THE BERING STRAIT: A CASE FOR PROACTIVE REGULATION IN THE WORLD’S NEXT CHOKEPOINT,” https://scholarworks.alaska.edu/handle/11122/6122)

An additional concern raised by the prospect of increased ship traffic through the Bering Strait

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food security of its coastal communities and the productivity of its commercial fisheries.

 

US leadership on shipping regulations opens lines of communications with Russia on Arctic issues—ensures no miscalculation or conflict

Rosenberg, 14

(Senior Fellow and Director of the Energy, Environment and Security Program at the Center for a New American Security. December, Arctic 2015 and Beyond A Strategy for U.S. Leadership in the High North, http://www.cnas.org/sites/default/files/publications-pdf/CNAS_ArcticHighNorth_policybrief_RosenbergTitleyWiker.pdf)

The United States’ proposed Arctic Council (AC) agenda, if successfully implemented,

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that might otherwise lead to unnecessary, costly and dangerous escalation of tensions.

 

US Russia accidental launch risk high in the Arctic—goes nuclear and cause extinction. Most recent and qualified evidence

Barrett, 16

(Former Stanton Fellow at RAND and Senior Risk Analyst-ABS Consulting, False Alarms, True Dangers? Current and Future Risks of Inadvertent U.S.-Russian Nuclear War,

http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/perspectives/PE100/PE191/RAND_PE191.pdf)

In the post–Cold War era, it is tempting to see the threat

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Podvig, 2002, p. 49; Podvig, 2013).6 .

 

Speed restrictions essential to avoid vessel interference with Point Mugu range—vital to readiness

Parisi, 13

(Head, Sustainability Office-US Navy, Letter to California Air Resources Board, 4/23, https://www.ourair.org/wp-content/uploads/VSR-support-SBCAPCD.pdf)

Thank you for the opportunity to provide input and comments on your Draft Cap-

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simultaneously decreasing conflict with critical Naval operations and protecting our National Defense Mandate.

 

Emissions 1AC

 

CO2 driven ocean acidification guarantees extinction

Spinrad and Boyd 15 [Richard, chief scientist of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Ian, chief scientific adviser to the British government’s Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, “Our Deadened, Carbon-Soaked Seas,” 10/15/15, NYT]

Ocean and coastal waters around the world are beginning to tell a disturbing story.

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of ocean acidification at our own peril, and that of future generations.

 

Arctic ice melt is an existential risk – equivalent of adding 25% to global emissions – stabilizing it is able to regulate climate change

Peter Wadhams, ScD, is professor of Ocean Physics, and Head of the Polar Ocean Physics Group in the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, is a sea ice specialist with 46 years of research on sea ice and ocean processes in the Arctic and Antarctic, September 26, 2016, The Global Impacts of Rapidly Disappearing Arctic Sea Ice, http://e360.yale.edu/features/as_arctic_ocean_ice_disappears_global_climate_impacts_intensify_wadhams

Since my days measuring the thickness of Arctic Ocean ice from British nuclear submarines in

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driver of, rather than just a responder to, global climate change.

 

Warming above the Arctic Circle warms the oceans and melts the permafrost—triggers methane burps that cause global extinction within the next 9 years—prefer most recent data

Lindorff 2/10

Dave Lindorff, Reporter and contributor to Businessweek, citing February NASA measurements, Harold Wansless—Professor of Geology and a specialist in sea level rise at the University of Miami, and others, A rapidly warming Arctic could loose a methane climate bomb resulting in extinction in nine years, February 10, 2017, http://www.nationofchange.org/2017/02/10/rapidly-warming-arctic-loose-methane-climate-bomb-mean-extinction-nine-years/

Reports from the Arctic are getting pretty grim. The latest, from a blog

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least what we call “civilization,” in as little as nine years.

 

Causes total planetary extinction—no alt causes—backed by rigorous studies

Brand 16

Uwe Brand, PhD DFGAC PGeo, Professor of Earth Sciences specializing in Isotope Carbonate-hydrogeochemistry and 2008-2010 Chancellor’s Chair for Research Excellence at Brock University, Adjunct Professor of Geology and Planetary Science at University of Pittsburgh, Editor-in-Chief of Chemical Geology, et al, Methane Hydrate: Killer cause of Earth’s greatest mass extinction, Palaeoworld, Volume 25, Issue 4, December 2016, Pages 496–507, http://dx.doi.org.proxy.library.georgetown.edu/10.1016/j.palwor.2016.06.00

Nigel Blameya, Claudio Garbellib, 1, Erika Griesshaberc, Renato Posenatod, Lucia

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for humanity and the problems associated with climate change in the 21st century.

 

Cutting black carbon is necessary and sufficient to solve Arctic warming – causes immediate and massive temperature reductions – best new models

Jacobson 10

Jess McNally is a science-writing intern at the Stanford News Service, citing a new peer-reviewed study by Mark Jacobson, Director of Stanford’s Atmosphere/Energy Program and Professor of civil and environmental engineering and a senior fellow at Stanford’s Woods Institute for the Environment. His work was supported by grants from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NASA, the NASA High-End Computing Program and the National Science Foundation, Best hope for saving Arctic sea ice is cutting soot emissions, says Stanford researcher, Stanford Report, July 28, 2010, http://news.stanford.edu/news/2010/july/soot-emissions-ice-072810.html

The quickest, best way to slow the rapid melting of Arctic sea ice is

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is expected to warm significantly more in the future if nothing is done.

 

Speed limits solve emissions

Ballo, 7

(Earthjustice Attorney, 10/3, Re: Petition for Rulemaking Under the Clean Air Act to Reduce the Emission of Air Pollutants from Marine Shipping Vessels that Contribute to Global Climate Change, https://www.whitehouse.gov/assets/formsubmissions/106/ffcb4d5823314e1d8225d94eac c4e1bb.pdf)

EPA should adopt restrictions on vessel speed to reduce carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide,

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they would reduce the emissions of this pollutant per ton of cargo carried.

 

Slowing ships down is the easiest way to curb black carbon emissions that trigger rapid Arctic ice melt

Maggs, 12

(Fellow at Seas at Risk & Member of Clean Shipping Coalition, Smarter steaming ahead, 2/28, https://www.transportenvironment.org/sites/te/files/media/Smarter%20Steaming%20Ahead%20briefing.pdf)

Regulated slow steaming could apply at various levels. A global regime would potentially have

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steaming regime. The designation of a PSSA typically takes a few years.

 

Failure to impose regulations lead to NOx emissions—independently trigger rapid ocean acidification

Ballo, 7

(Earthjustice Attorney, 10/3, Re: Petition for Rulemaking Under the Clean Air Act to Reduce the Emission of Air Pollutants from Marine Shipping Vessels that Contribute to Global Climate Change, https://www.whitehouse.gov/assets/formsubmissions/106/ffcb4d5823314e1d8225d94eac c4e1bb.pdf)

Emissions of nitrogen oxides contribute to global climate change by influencing the atmospheric concentration of

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effect potentially equivalent to the warming effect from ship carbon dioxide emissions.47

 

Arctic shipping is key to ice melt—it’s a rapidly growing source and localized emissions have an outsized impact

Kedzierski, 13

(Policy Officer at European Commission, 4/11, The environmental impact of increased shipping activities in the Arctic: the case of black carbon, http://www.greens-efa.eu/fileadmin/dam/Documents/Events/11_04_2013_Arctic_Melt/Antoine_Kedzierski_The_environmental_impact_of_increased_shipping_activities_in_the_Arctic_The_case_of_black_carbon.pdf)

Black carbon, is the second most important human emission in terms of its climate

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emissions would exacerbate harm to an already fragile region. (IMarEST 2013)

 

Plan solves

Jacqueline Savitz is senior director for pollution campaigns at Oceana, an international ocean conservation organisation, June 20, 2008, Cruise Control, www.theecologist.org/investigations/climate_change/269425/cruise_control.html

Many industries argue that its business is so far superior to others that it should

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actual amount saved is increasing as we speak due to escalating fuel prices.

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